10 dic. 2009

Las acciones del narco ¿terroristas?

Los narcos brincaron al terrorismo, alerta ONU
Nota de Alberto Morales
El Universal, 10 de diciembre de 2009
El representante regional de la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito, Antonio L. Mazzitelli, afirmó que los cárteles mexicanos de la droga están recurriendo a actos de terrorismo, “ya que no tienen otra opción para tratar de obligar a la población civil, y en particular a las autoridades, a lograr pactos”.
El funcionario, experto en combate al crimen, se refirió en particular a los hechos de violencia registrados esta semana en Sonora, donde estallaron granadas en Hermosillo, Navojoa y Cananea.
Dijo que el terrorismo indiscriminado es síntoma de enorme debilidad del crimen. “Eso podría indicar que probablemente se están logrando resultados [en la lucha contra la delincuencia]”.
Mazzitelli se declaró en favor de los señalamientos del presidente Felipe Calderón, quien dijo que no claudicará en el combate al crimen organizado ni escuchará a las voces que pretenden que el Estado se retire de esa lucha.
“México no quiere claudicar ante el poder criminal. Los mexicanos, aun bajo presión y amenazas, no quieren que los criminales sean los que manden, porque los criminales sólo conocen la ley de la violencia, no saben de pactos ni reglas, son sus reglas y a quien no las respete, lo matan”, dijo.
Consideró preocupante los actos de violencia porque desde hace tres años se mantienen en los mismos niveles “y la población civil está en riesgo de enfrentarse a los criminales de manera involuntaria”. Dijo que el poderío del narcotráfico es resultado de subestimar en los últimos 20 años a esos grupos.
Desde su perspectiva, “es terrible” que amenazas de los cárteles hayan derivado en la renuncia de autoridades municipales en Tancítaro, Michoacán.
El representante de la ONU para México, Centroamérica y el Caribe mencionó que en esas situaciones es necesario fortalecer la presencia del Estado a través de los cuerpos de seguridad para que la gente y los civiles pueden retomar sus funciones.
“¿Si no es el Ejército, quién estaría listo para entrar por los que se han ido? ¿Los mismos criminales?”, cuestionó.
***
Narco usa terror en busca de pacto: ONU

Nota ampliada de Alberto Morales
El Universal, 10 de diciembre de 2009
La violencia es síntoma de que el Estado los está dañando: Mazzitelli
Los cárteles de la droga en México han comenzado a realizar “actos terroristas” —como en Michoacán y Sonora, donde detonaron granadas de fragmentación— para obligar a la población y en particular a las autoridades a llegar a pactos, aseguró Antonio L. Mazzitelli, representante regional de la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito (ONUDC, por sus siglas en inglés).
“Esos son actos de terrorismo de verdad preocupantes, pero desde un análisis más destacado, el recurrir a formas de terrorismo indiscriminado es síntoma también de enorme debilidad”, afirmó el funcionario del organismo internacional para México, Centroamérica y el Caribe.
En entrevista en la sede de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas en México, el experto en materia de crimen organizado no descartó que los cárteles busquen pactar con el gobierno.
“Quien recurre a actos de terrorismo no tiene otra opción para tratar de obligar a la población civil, y en particular a las autoridades, a llegar a pactos. Eso es síntoma de debilidad, no de fortaleza, que debería servir como indicador de que probablemente se están obteniendo resultados”, dijo.
Mazzitelli reconoció que el uso de la violencia indiscriminada por parte de las bandas criminales sigue a los mismos niveles que hace tres años, sobre todo en el norte del país, y eso —agregó— es preocupante en la medida de que la población civil está en riesgo al enfrentarse con los criminales de manera involuntaria.
Calificó como “terrible” que las autoridades de Tancítaro, Michoacán, hayan renunciado a sus cargos por amenazas del crimen organizado.
“Yo vengo de Italia, donde muchas municipalidades han sido y siguen siendo disueltas por infiltraciones mafiosas. Los poderes administrativos son operados por autoridades judiciales, como el prefecto, que es el jefe de la policía. Esas son situaciones extremas.”
Mayor presencia del Estado
El experto de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas consideró que en ese tipo de situaciones, si las autoridades civiles no pueden seguir ejerciendo su función, es necesario fortalecer la presencia del Estado a través de los cuerpos de seguridad.
Opinó que se debe reforzar el destacamento de las fuerzas públicas, para brindar seguridad y que la gente pueda retomar sus funciones.
“¿Si no es el Ejército, quién estaría listo para entrar por lo que se han ido los mismos criminales?”, preguntó.
En lucha del gobierno del presidente Felipe Calderón contra los cárteles de la droga, Antonio L. Mazzitelli respaldó la afirmación del Ejecutivo federal, quien dijo que “no cejará” en el combate contra la delincuencia organizada.
“México no quiere claudicar ante el poder criminal. Los mexicanos aún bajo presión y amenazas no quieren que los criminales sean los que manden, porque ellos sólo conocen la ley de la violencia, no saben de pactos, son sus reglas y quien no se conforma lo matan.”
En noviembre pasado, Mazzitelli descartó la presencia de los Cascos Azules para combatir al crimen organizado en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, pues dijo que el despliegue de tropas de la ONU es exclusiva para misiones de paz.
En un foro organizado por la Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA), agregó que la ola de violencia que vive este país es resultado de subestimar en las últimas dos décadas a los cárteles del narcotráfico.
En tanto, al conmemorar el Día Internacional contra la Corrupción, en la sede de las Naciones Unidas en México, Antonio L. Mazzitelli expresó que la participación y la cultura cívica son los factores primordiales para lograr un verdadero cambio en la sociedad.
Actuar contra corrupción
Arnaud Peral, representante del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), mencionó que son necesarias acciones colectivas entre la sociedad, el gobierno y los empresarios en el combate a la corrupción.

Acuerdo México EE UU

Acuerdo entre Agustín Carstens y Janet Napolitano, firmado reientemente -lunes 7 de diciembre-, que puede traer abajo la nominación al Banxico y además permitiría acusarlo de entregar información clasificada nuestra al exterior.
FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND PUBLIC CREDIT OF
THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) of the United States of America and the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) of the United Mexican States, hereinafter referred to collectively as the “Participants”,
Recognizing the longstanding relationship and cooperation between their customs administrations;
Considering the constant and significant increase in bilateral trade, as well as in the flow of people and capital between the United States of America and the United Mexican States and the strong ties between the economies of the two nations;
Having regard for their common concern for and approach to the security and safety of North America, their common interest in protecting their peoples and production capabilities, and the relevant role their customs administrations and other agencies and divisions within their Departments have in such concerns, approaches and interests;
Recognizing the role their customs administrations play in safeguarding their nations and citizens;
Recognizing the needs for enhanced joint management of the shared border;
Further recognizing the desire of the Participants to collaborate and coordinate, as appropriate and to the extent practicable, subject to their capabilities and discretion, to interdict criminal acts and improve the movement of legitimate trade and travel, thus enhancing the security of Mexico and the United States;
Recognizing the relevant role their customs administrations and other agencies and divisions within their Departments have in fostering the competitiveness of their countries’ economies and their important role in the development and implementation of the World Customs Organization’s Framework of Standards for the Security and Facilitation of the International Trade Supply Chain;
Having regard for, and recognizing the legal basis of and achievements reached through, the instruments provided to their customs administrations by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States
Regarding Mutual Assistance Between their Customs Administrations (CMAA Agreement) signed on June 20, 2000;
Recognizing the ongoing cooperative efforts of the Participants in customs-related matters, as set forth within NAFTA, specifically, Article 512(2)(c); and Recognizing the spirit of, and achievements reached through other bi-national fora and arrangements;
Hereby express their desire to increase and strengthen their cooperation, by applying the necessary efforts and resources to fulfill the goals, initiatives, programs and mechanisms listed and envisioned under this Declaration of Principles (Declaration).
SCOPE OF COOPERATION
The Participants intend to develop and implement initiatives, programs and mechanisms aimed at the following goals:
1. Strengthening of cooperation in matters related to enforcement by expanding existing programs and establishing new collaborative security and enforcement initiatives.
2. Promotion of professionalism of the Participants’ personnel through integrity-related training and the sharing of best practices, improving their capacity to control borders and enforce laws that strengthen security and govern the movement of travelers, baggage, cargo and conveyances into and out of both countries
3. Sustaining support for, and promotion of the full implementation of the World Customs Organization’s Framework of Standards.
4. Increasing trade compliance and facilitation by further developing mechanisms for the exchange of information.
5. Improving trade partnerships and supply chain security by supporting bilateral programs with the private sector, and expanding upon the improvements the Participants have made, through greater government-trade cooperation.
6. Improving efficiency at the shared border by aligning operations, infrastructure planning and technologies to facilitate the movement of legitimate trade for compliant and secure importers, exporters, carriers, drivers and other stakeholders.
7. Strengthening cooperation in matters related to law enforcement by expanding existing institutional cooperation mechanisms related to the application of technology, data sharing and communication coordination and establishing new collaboration programs to be implemented along the shared border and in other regions, which are designed to fight contraband trafficking, smuggling of prohibited goods, fraud, and related crimes, to the extent the Participants have enforcement jurisdiction over such activities.
IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES
The Department of Homeland Security designates U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit designates the Tax Administration Service and the Administration General of Customs of the United Mexican States, as their respective implementing agents (Implementing Agencies) under this Declaration.
BILATERAL STRATEGIC PLAN
The Participants hereby identify the Bilateral Strategic Plan (BSP) as the framework for their intended engagement, outlining their strategic goals, working groups and priority initiatives intended to guide the bi-lateral efforts of the Participants and facilitate timely implementation of all programs or initiatives established therein.
LEADERSHIP AND COORDINATION
The Participants are to establish an Executive Steering Committee (ESC), to be comprised of the Department of Homeland Security’s Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, the Assistant Secretary for ICE and the Commissioner of CBP, and the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit’s Chief of the Tax Administration Service and the Administrator General of Customs. The Participants, through the ESC and to the extent appropriate, are expected to jointly review and approve, as appropriate, new initiatives presented to them by the Implementing Agencies during such meetings, for implementation under the provisions of this Declaration.
The Implementing Agencies are expected to reach out to any other government agency that may assist them in the development and implementation of initiatives, programs and mechanisms contemplated under this Declaration, which are mutually determined by the Implementing Agencies to be beneficial.
PRIORITY INITIATIVES
The Participants intend to explore the feasibility of projects which enhance risk management and joint targeting efforts that would allow them to process, monitor and control the movement of inbound, outbound and in-transit cargo, in all modes of transportation, jointly and in a coordinated manner, through their territories. For these purposes, the Participants are expected to study the financial, operational and legal challenges of such projects.
The Participants intend to coordinate with each other in this process, utilizing the ESC and the aforementioned working groups, and to consult with other competent departments or agencies within their respective governments, at a federal, state, local, and tribal level, as appropriate.
BILATERAL WORKING GROUPS
The Participants support the maintenance of formal contacts and mechanisms for the appropriate implementation of the provisions of this Declaration. The bilateral working groups are tasked with the exploration, development and implementation of specific initiatives, programs and mechanisms
The Participants of these working groups are to include officials from different agencies within DHS and SHCP, respectively, and should include officials from other government departments and agencies, as the Participants deem appropriate.
GENERAL PROVISIONS
This Declaration of Principles represents an understanding between the Participants and does not constitute a legally binding agreement.
All activities of the Participants and their Implementing Agencies under this Declaration should be carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of the Participants’ Governments, and applicable international agreements to which the Participants’ Governments are party.
The Participants are expected to bear their own costs in performing their functions under this DOP. All activities of the Participants are subject to the availability of funds and necessary human resources.
On an annual basis every year thereafter, the Participants intend to review their cooperative efforts under the provisions of this Declaration with a view to determining their desire to continue to cooperate in accordance with this arrangement in the future.
Upon signature of this document by both Participants, this Declaration is intended to replace the Declaration of Principles signed June 1, 2007.
Signed in Washington, D.C. on the 7th day of December of the year 2009, in duplicate in the English and Spanish languages.
For the Department of Homeland Security For the Ministry of Finance of the United States of America and Public Credit of the United Mexican States
Janet Napolitano Agustín Carstens Carstens Secretary of Homeland Security Secretary of Finance and Public Credit